Friday, January 24, 2020
Irish Immigration 18001880 INTRODUCTION The history of Ireland "that most distressful nation" is full of drama and tragedy, but one of the most interesting stories is about what happened to the Irish during the mid-nineteenth century and how millions of Irish came to live in America (Purcell 31). Although the high point of the story was the years of the devastating potato famine from 1845 to 1848, historians have pointed out that immigrating from Ireland was becoming more popular before the famine and continued until the turn of the twentieth century. In the one hundred years between the first recording of immigrants in 1820 and the passing of immigration restrictions in 1924, over four and one half million Irish immigrated to the United States. HOW THEY PAID TO COME TO AMERICA Most of the pre-famine immigrants were single men who found jobs as laborers in the North and Northeast (Purcell 32). Although these were low paying jobs, they were still better than what they had in Ireland. Another thing typical of the Irish immigrants in the pre-famine years was something called the chain migration (Purcell 36). The first immigrants found jobs, saved most or all of their money, and sent money or tickets for sailing on the ships to relatives in the old country. By very hard work, immigrants made it possible to pay for their entire family to follow them to America. To save up all of the passage money was very difficult but they worked hard and did it. Many immigrants from other countries also used the chain migration idea, and it is still common for immigrants to use this system. However, the Irish were the first to use chain migration in such a big way. THE LAWS OF IMMIGRATION During the 200 years that this ... ...live in a free land, and a more full appreciation of the life we lead today, as well as a thankfulness to those who, long ago, paved the way. Bibliography: WORKS CITED Anderson, Kelly. Immigration. San Diego: Lucent, 1993. Danilov, Dan. Immigrating to the USA.1st ed. British Columbia: Self-Counsel, 1978. Danilov, Dan. Immigrating to the USA. 5th ed. British Columbia: Self-Counsel, 1989. Gmelch, Sharon. Irish Life and Traditions. Dublin: O'Brien, 1986. Griffin, William. The Irish Americans. Hong Kong: Hugh Lauter Levin, 1998. "Immigrants." November 1993. 10 November 1998 . Long, Robert Emmet.Immigration. Dublin: H. W. Wilson, 1996. Purcell, L. Edward. Immigration. Phoenix: Oryx, 1995. Reimers, David. The Immigrant Experience. New York: Chealsea House Publishers, 1989. Sandler, Martin. Immigrants. New York: Eagle, 1995.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
In 1871, Swinburne produced a new collection of poems which he entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Songs Before SunriseÃ¢â¬ , which echoed a whole generationÃ¢â¬â¢s sentiments about ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle for freedom. The poetÃ¢â¬â¢s stellar piece, Ã¢â¬Å"HerthaÃ¢â¬ , was yet another offering to the pagan altar upon which he worshipped. Hertha, the goddess of fertility, is written as the speaker of a dramatic monologue that aims to declare her superiority and immortality over the Christian God, a tactic Swinburne used to get the attention of the Victorian audience. He emphasizes, through Hertha, the significance and importance of Mother Nature over God, and provides line after line of physical representations of a Ã¢â¬Å"motherÃ¢â¬ that gives life and nourishment to her offspring, compared to a God who, in SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s logic, false and provisional. Also, by centering on the Ã¢â¬Å"bodyÃ¢â¬ of Hertha, Swinburne stays true to his established tradition of sensuality and passion. He ends the poem with Hertha saying Ã¢â¬Å"I am manÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âcompleting the ultimate pagan principle of manÃ¢â¬â¢s harmony and unity with nature. SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s most celebrated work, among his legendary pieces, is 1882Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Tristram of LyonesseÃ¢â¬ . A veritable triumph in the technical sense, the poem was skillfully written to feature long romantic couplets punctuated with a brilliant arrangement of vowel sounds, rhythm, and alliteration. Swinburne exposes his concept of passion masterfully in this tale of lovers who care for nothing else but their love, and would go to any length to keep the fire burning. Often referred to as SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s ode to the English dramatists, Ã¢â¬Å"TristramÃ¢â¬ is, to this day, the most exemplary rendition of the English couplet. IV. Other Literary Accomplishments As much as Swinburne was known as an exceptional poet was his reputation as an excellent critic. From 1868, he managed to produce a number of volumes of literary criticism, with the best contained in Miscellanies and Essays and Studies. In this series, the genius and poetics of Swinburne are satisfyingly revealed and explored. He also published A Study of Shakespeare, in which he expressed his own great technical competencies and proficiencies in the areas of music and rhythm in poetry, by praising the iconic master of story, song, and technical excellence. It is quite apparent that Swinburne had intentionally limited his paganistic and atheistic principles to his poetryÃ¢â¬âthe literary criticism that bears his name almost always stays firmly on the positive side, with nary a mention of technical or thematic shortcomings of the authors he discusses. With SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s passing in 1909, the Victorian society of England lost one of its greatest masters in lyric poetry, whose genius and brilliance were quite overflowing that he found it necessary to go against the tide, and stand by the least accepted constructs of society. V. Conclusion The question regarding SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s religious influences in his poetry has been clearly answered, and has validated the original logic proposed. There are indeed references to Christianity and traditional beliefs in almost all his poetry, which he strategically decided to use to disprove many of the paradigms established by the Church. With his declared propensity to explore the ideals of physical pain and pleasure, sexual passion, and excessive living, through a great deal of wit, sarcasm, and morbidity, the reading audience is left shocked and astonished way beyond their accepted levels. However, it takes one as talented as Swinburne to effectively realize the relationship between two opposing polesÃ¢â¬âChristianity and immoralityÃ¢â¬âand use the commonalities to create an ideology that is all at once controversial and unacceptable, but also incredible and brilliant. Bibliography Apiryon, T. Ã¢â¬ËAlgernon Charles SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢, The Hermetic Library, 1995, retrieved 12 July 2008 from http://www. hermetic. com/sabazius/swinburne. htm Bartleby, Ã¢â¬ËThe Rossettis, William Morries, Swinburne, and OthersÃ¢â¬â¢. Bartleby. com, retrieved on 12 July 2008 from http://www. bartleby. com/223/0508. html Cymru, Gordd. Ã¢â¬ËArthurian and Grail PoetryÃ¢â¬â¢, Celtic Twilight, 2000, retireved 12 July 2008 from http://celtic-twilight. com/camelot/poetry/swinburne/index. htm Representative Poetry Online, Ã¢â¬ËSelected Poetry of Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837- 1909), retrieved on 12 July 2008 from http://rpo. library. utoronto. ca/poet/319. html Sawhney, Paramvir, Ã¢â¬ËGestalt Paganism in AC SwinburneÃ¢â¬â¢s HerthaÃ¢â¬â¢ The Victorian Web, 2006, retrieved on 12 July 2008 from http://victorianweb. org/authors/swinburne/sawhney9. html Thomas, Edward, Ã¢â¬ËA Modern BacchantÃ¢â¬â¢, The New York Times, 29 December 1912.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Stokely Carmichael was an important activist in the Civil Rights Movement who attained prominence (and generated enormous controversy) when he issued a call for Black Power during a speech in 1966. The phrase quickly spread, sparking a fierce national debate. Carmichaels words became popular among younger African Americans who were frustrated with the slow pace of progress in the field of civil rights. His magnetic oratory, which would typically contain flashes of passionate anger mixed with playful wit, helped make him nationally famous. Fast Facts: Stokely Carmichael Full Name: Stokely CarmichaelAlso Known As: Kwame TureOccupation: Organizer and civil rights activistBorn: June 29, 1941 in Port-of-Spain, TrinidadDied: November 15, 1998 in Conakry, GuineaKey Accomplishments: Originator of the term Black Power and a leader of the Black Power movement Early Life Stokely Carmichael was born in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on June 29, 1941. His parents emigrated to New York City when Stokely was two, leaving him in the care of grandparents. The family was eventually reunited when Stokely was 11 and came to live with his parents. The family lived in Harlem and eventually in the Bronx. A gifted student, Carmichael was accepted to the Bronx High School of Science, a prestigious institution where he came into contact with students from diverse backgrounds. He later recalled going to parties with classmates who lived on Park Avenue and feeling uncomfortable in the presence of their maids Ã¢â¬â given the fact that his own mother worked as a maid. He was offered several scholarships to elite colleges and ultimately chose to attend Howard University in Washington, D.C.. By the time he began college in 1960, he was greatly inspired by the growing Civil Rights Movement. He had seen television reports of sit-ins and other protests in the South and felt a need to get involved. While a student at Howard, he came into contact with members of SNCC, the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (popularly known as Snick). Carmichael began participating in SNCC actions, traveling to the South and joining Freedom Riders as they sought to integrate interstate bus travel. Following graduation from Howard in 1964, he began working full-time with SNCC and soon became a traveling organizer in the South. It was a dangerous time. The Freedom Summer project was trying to register black voters across the South, and resistance was fierce. In June 1964 three civil rights workers, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, disappeared in Mississippi. Carmichael and some SNCC associates participated in the search for the missing activists. The bodies of the three murdered activists were eventually found by the FBI in August 1964. Other activists who were personal friends of Carmichael were killed in the following two years. The August 1965 shotgun murder of Jonathan Daniels, a white seminarian who had been working with SNCC in the South, affected Carmichael deeply. Black Power From 1964 to 1966 Carmichael was constantly in motion, helping to register voters and fight against the Jim Crow system of the South. With his quick wit and oratorical skills, Carmichael became a rising star in the movement. He was jailed numerous times, and was known to tell stories about how he and fellow inmates would sing to both pass the time and annoy the guards. He later said his patience for peaceful resistance broke down when, from a hotel room window, he saw police savagely beat civil rights protesters in the street below. In June 1966, James Meredith, who had integrated the University of Mississippi in 1962, began a one-man march across Mississippi. On the second day, he was shot and injured. Many other activists, including Carmichael and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., vowed to finish his march. Marchers began crossing the state, with some joining in and some dropping out. According to a New York Times report, there were usually about 100 marchers at any one time, while volunteers fanned out along the route to register voters. On June 16, 1966, the march reached Greenwood, Mississippi. White residents turned out to heckle and hurl racial slurs, and local police harassed the marchers. When marchers tried to pitch tents to spend the night in a local park, they were arrested. Carmichael was taken to jail, and a photograph of him in handcuffs would appear on the front page of the next mornings New York Times. Carmichael spent five hours in custody before supporters bailed him out. He appeared at a park in Greenwood that night, and spoke to about 600 supporters. The words he used would change the course of the Civil Rights Movement, and the 1960s. With his dynamic delivery, Carmichael called for Black Power. The crowd chanted the words. Reporters covering the march took notice. Up until that point, the marches in the South tended to be portrayed as dignified groups of people singing hymns. Now there seemed to be an angry chant electrifying the crowd. The New York Times reported on how quickly Carmichaels words were adopted: Many marchers and local Negroes were chanting Black power, black power, a cry taught them by Mr. Carmichael at a rally last night when he said, Every courthouse in Mississippi ought to be burned down to get rid of the dirt. But on the courthouse steps, Mr. Carmichael was less angry and said: The only way we can change things in Mississippi is with the ballot. Thats black power. Carmichael gave his first Black Power speech on a Thursday night. Three days later, he appeared, in a suit and tie, on the CBS News program Face the Nation, where he was questioned by prominent political journalists. He challenged his white interviewers, at one point contrasting the American effort to deliver democracy in Vietnam with its apparent failure to do the same in the American South. Over the next few months the concept of Black Power was hotly debated in America. The speech Carmichael gave to hundreds in the park in Mississippi rippled through society, and opinion columns, magazine articles, and television reports sought to explain what it meant and what it said about the direction of the country. Within weeks of his speech to hundreds of marchers in Mississippi, Carmichael was the subject of a lengthy profile in the New York Times. The headline referred to him as Black Power Prophet Stokely Carmichael. Fame and Controversy In May 1967 LIFE magazine published an essay by the noted photographer and journalist Gordon Parks, who had spent four months following Carmichael. The article presented Carmichael to mainstream America as an intelligent activist with a skeptical, though nuanced, view of race relations. At one point Carmichael said to Parks that he was tired of explaining what Black Power meant, as his words kept getting twisted. Parks prodded him and Carmichael responded: For the last time, he said. Black Power means black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs. Its an economic and physical bloc that can exercise its strength in the black community instead of letting the job go to the Democratic or Republican parties or a white-controlled black man set up as a puppet to represent black people. We pick the brother and make sure he fulfills The article in LIFE may have made Carmichael relatable to mainstream America. But within months, his fiery rhetoric and wide-ranging travels made him an intensely controversial figure. In the summer of 1967, President Lyndon Johnson, alarmed at Carmichaels comments against the Vietnam War, personally instructed the FBI to conduct surveillance on him. In mid-July 1967, Carmichael embarked on what turned into a world tour. In London, he spoke at a Dialectics of Liberation conference, which featured scholars, activists, and even American poet Allen Ginsberg. While in England, Carmichael spoke at various local gatherings, which drew the attention of the British government. There were rumors that he was pressured to leave the country. In late July 1967, Carmichael flew to Havana, Cuba. He had been invited by the government of Fidel Castro. His visit immediately made news, including a report in the New York Times on July 26, 1967 with the headline: Carmichael Is Quoted As Saying Negroes Form Guerrilla Bands. The article quoted Carmichael as saying the deadly riots occurring in Detroit and Newark that summer had used the war tactics of guerrillas. On the same day that the New York Times article appeared, Fidel Castro introduced Carmichael at a speech in Santiago, Cuba. Castro referred to Carmichael as a leading American civil rights activist. The two men became friendly, and in the following days Castro personally drove Carmichael around in a jeep, pointing out landmarks related to battles in the Cuban revolution. Carmichaels time in Cuba was widely denounced in the United States. Following the controversial stay in Cuba, Carmichael planned to visit North Vietnam, the enemy of the United States. He boarded a Cuban airlines plane to fly to Spain, but Cuban intelligence called the flight back when it was tipped off that American authorities were planning to intercept Carmichael in Madrid and lift his passport. The Cuban government put Carmichael on a plane to the Soviet Union, and from there he traveled onward to China and eventually to North Vietnam. In Hanoi, he met with the nations leader, Ho Chi Minh. According to some accounts, Ho told Carmichael of when he lived in Harlem and had heard speeches by Marcus Garvey. At a rally in Hanoi, Carmichael spoke out against American involvement in Vietnam, using a chant he had previously used in America: Hell no, we wont go! Back in America, former allies distanced themselves from Carmichaels rhetoric and foreign connections and politicians spoke of charging him with sedition. In the fall of 1967, Carmichael kept traveling, visiting Algeria, Syria, and the African West African nation of Guinea. He began a relationship with the South African singer Miriam Makeba, whom he would eventually marry. At various stops on his travels he would speak out against Americas role in Vietnam, and denounce what he considered American imperialism. When he arrived back in New York, on December 11, 1967, federal agents, along with a crowd of supporters, were waiting to greet him. U.S. marshals confiscated his passport because he had visited communist countries without authorization. Post-American Life In 1968, Carmichael resumed his role as an activist in America. He published a book, Black Power, with a co-author, and he continued to speak out on his political vision. When Martin Luther King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, Carmichael was in Washington, D.C. He spoke publicly in the following days, saying white America had killed King. His rhetoric was denounced in the press, and political figures accused Carmichael of helping to spur on the riots that followed Kings killing. Later that year, Carmichael became affiliated with the Black Panther Party, and appeared with prominent Panthers at events in California. Wherever he went, controversy seemed to follow. Carmichael had married Miriam Makeba, and they made plans to live in Africa. Carmichael and Makeba left the United States in early 1969 (the federal government had returned his passport after he agreed not to visit banned countries). He would settle permanently in Guinea. During his time living in Africa, Carmichael changed his name to Kwame Ture. He claimed to be a revolutionary, and supported a Pan-African movement, the goal of which was to form African nations into a unified political entity. As Kwame Ture, his political moves were generally frustrated. He was criticized at times for being too friendly with Africa dictators, including Idi Amin. Ture would occasionally visit the United States, giving lectures, appearing in various public forums, and even appearing for an interview on C-Span. After years under surveillance, he had become intensely suspicious of the United States government. When he was diagnosed with prostate cancer in the mid-1990s, he said to friends that the CIA may have made him contract it. Kwame Ture, who Americans remembered as Stokely Carmichael, died in Guinea on November 15, 1998. Sources Stokely Carmichael. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., vol. 3, Gale, 2004, pp. 305-308. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Glickman, Simon, and David G. Oblender. Carmichael, Stokely 1941Ã¢â¬â1998. Contemporary Black Biography, edited by David G. Oblender, vol. 26, Gale, 2001, pp. 25-28. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Joseph, Peniel E., Stokely: A Life, Basic Civitas, New York City, 2014.
Monday, December 30, 2019
Space exploration is dangerous. Just ask the astronauts and cosmonauts who do it. They train for safe space flight and the agencies who send them to space work very hard to make conditions as safe as possible. Astronauts will tell you that while it looks like fun, space flight is (like any other extreme flight) comes with its own set of dangers. This is something the crew of Soyuz 11 found out too late, from a small malfunction that ended their lives.Ã A Loss for the Soviets Both American and Soviet space programs have lost astronauts in the line of duty. The Soviets biggest major tragedy came after they lost the race to the Moon. AfterÃ the Americans landedÃ Apollo 11Ã on July 20, 1969, the Soviet space agency turned its attention towards constructing space stations, a task they became quite good at, but not without problems.Ã Their first station was calledÃ Salyut 1 and was launched on April 19, 1971. It was the earliest predecessor for the later Skylab and the currentÃ International Space Station missions. The Soviets built Salyut 1 primarily to study the effects of long-term space flight on humans, plants, and for meteorological research. It also included a spectrogram telescope, Orion 1, and gamma-ray telescope Anna III. Both were used for astronomical studies. It was all very ambitious, but the very first crewed flight to the station in 1971 ended in disaster. A Troubled Beginning Salyut 1Ã¢â¬â¢s first crew launched aboard Soyuz 10 on April 22, 1971. Cosmonauts Vladimir Shatalov, Alexei Yeliseyev, and Nikolai Rukavishnikov were aboard. When they reached the station and attempted to dock on April 24, the hatch would not open. After making a second attempt, the mission was canceled and the crew returned home. Problems occurred during reentry and the shipÃ¢â¬â¢s air supply became toxic. Nikolai Rukavishnikov passed out, but he and the other two men recovered fully. The next Salyut crew, scheduled to launch aboard Soyuz 11, were three experienced fliers: Valery Kubasov, Alexei Leonov, and Pyotr Kolodin. Prior to launch, Kubasov was suspected of having contracted tuberculosis, which caused the Soviet space authorities to replace this crew with their backups, Georgi Dobrovolski, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsayev, who launched on June 6, 1971. A Successful Docking After the docking problems that Soyuz 10 experienced, the Soyuz 11 crew used automated systems to maneuver within a hundred meters of the station. Then they hand-docked the ship. However, problems plagued this mission, too. The primary instrument aboard the station, the Orion telescope, would not function because its cover failed to jettison. The cramped working conditions andÃ a personality clash between the commander Dobrovolskiy (a rookie) and the veteran Volkov made it very difficult to conduct experiments. After a small fire flared up, the mission was cut short and the astronauts departed after 24 days, instead of the planned 30. Despite these problems, the mission was still considered a success. Disaster Strikes Shortly after Soyuz 11 undocked and made an initial retrofire, communication was lost with the crew far earlier than normal. Usually, contact is lost during the atmospheric re-entry, which is to be expected. Contact with the crew was lost long before the capsule entered the atmosphere. It descended and made a soft landing and was recovered on June 29, 1971, 23:17 GMT. When the hatch was opened, rescue personnel found all three crew members dead. Ã What could have happened? Space tragedies require thorough investigation so that mission planners can understand what happened and why. The Soviet space agencys investigation showed that a valve which was not supposed to open until an altitude of four kilometers was reached had been jerked open during the undocking maneuver. This caused the cosmonauts oxygen to bleed into space. The crew tried to close the valve but ran out of time. Due to space limitations, they were not wearing space suits. The official Soviet document on the accident explained more fully:Ã At approximately 723 seconds after retrofire, the 12 Soyuz pyro cartridges fired simultaneously instead of sequentially to separate the two modules .... the force of the discharge caused the internal mechanism of the pressure equalization valve to release a seal that was usually discarded pyrotechnically much later to adjust the cabin pressure automatically. When the valve opened at a height of 168 kilometers the gradual but steady loss of pressure was fatal to the crew within about 30 seconds. By 935 seconds after retrofire, the cabin pressure had dropped to zero...only thorough analysis of telemetry records of the attitude control system thruster firings that had been made to counteract the force of the escaping gases and through the pyrotechnic powder traces found in the throat of the pressure equalization valve were Soviet specialists able to determine that the valve had malfunctioned and had been the sole cause of the deaths. The End of Salyut The USSR did not send any other crews to Salyut 1. ItÃ was later deorbited and burned up on reentry.Ã Later crews were limited to two cosmonauts, to allow room for the required space suits during take-off and landing. It was a bitter lesson in spacecraft design and safety, for which three men paid with their lives.Ã At latest count, 18 space fliers (including the crew of Salyut 1) have died in accidents and malfunctions. As humans continue to explore space, there will be more deaths, because space is, as the late astronaut Gus Grissom once pointed out, a risky business. He also said that the conquest of space is worth the risk of life, and people in space agencies around the world today recognize that risk even as they seek to explore beyond Earth. Edited and updated by Carolyn Collins Petersen.
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Proceedings of The National Conference On Undergraduate Research (NCUR) 2009 University of Wisconsin La-Crosse La-Crosse, Wisconsin April 16 - 18, 2009 Prison Culture, Education, and Recidivism Rates Caleb L. Fry and Lauren T. Rios Department of Anthropology Lake Tahoe Community College One College Drive South Lake Tahoe, California 96150 USA Faculty Advisor: Daryl G. Frazetti Abstract Given the number of inmates in the prison system and the high level of recidivism, it is important to seek out possible solutions to this growing problem. By implementing more educationally and vocationally oriented programs it is possible that current recidivism rates can be reduced, thereby offering some relief for existing overcrowding conditions.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Table 1. percentage of educational programs offered at federal, state, and local levels2 Institution Type Federal Prisons Academic Program Type Adult Basic Secondary Post Secondary Vocational Adult Basic Secondary Post Secondary Vocational Adult Basic Secondary Post Secondary Vocational Percentage Offered 97.40% 98.70% 80.50% 93.5% 80.40% 83.60% 26.70% 55.70% 78.50% 60.40% 26.70% 6.5% State Prison Local Jails (avg. for all in US) Although several educational programs are widely available, many inmates are unable to take advantage of them, do not complete them, or lack follow up in the form of ongoing support services once released from the correctional system. The following table displays this concern: Table 2. national and state data on inmate participation and completion . Approximate Numbers 1993-2007: Institution Type Total Number of Inmates System 165,000 167,717 Number of Inmates Enrolled in Education Programs 54,000 87,624 Rate of Attendance, At Completion of Course 50% 60% Rate of Completion State System Federal System 4% 20% Education has played a prominent role in our correctional institutions over time. Unfortunately, there are many prisons which have failing programs with high drop-out rates, poor participation, and weak or non-existent postrelease support. In addition, funding cuts in all levels of government have forced many to reduce their offerings or close programs altogether. It has become apparent that there areShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Education On The Prison System851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Importance of Education in the Prison System Introduction Education has always been one of the keys to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s success. People have access to education in many different setting. The classroom, the workplace, on-line, the YMCA and Hobby Lobby are all places where someone can go to get some form of instruction. More often that not people over look the prison system as place where one can receive an education. Most prisons offer college and vocational classes to the inmates as a wayRead MorePrison Education Project ( Pep )928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPrison Education Project (PEP) was created by Dr. Renford Reese in 2011 to provide currently incarcerated inmates with an opportunity to be reeducated and properly equipped to return back to society. Yet an important question is raised as to why such a program was needed in the first place. 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Philosophers and college students extol the transformative potential of education. Rarely, however, do their accolades manifest as tangible action in the ghettoes, slums, and cities of America. Nevertheless, these archetypal zones of exclusion have seen their share of new educational movements. Magnet and charter schools, increasedRead MoreEducation vs Prison Funding2137 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesFinal research paper on Ã¢â¬Å"Education vs. Prison FundingÃ¢â¬ The government is responsible for security of its citizens and it is also responsible to provide a safe socio-economic environment to its people, and in this context; Jails and schools are two important institutions of any society, which need regular monetary support from the government. Thus government has to be very careful in allocating funds to both of the institutions; as one punishes the convicts and other makes the people skillful, andRead MorePublic Policy Concerning Education During Prisons1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconcerning education in prisons decisively emphasizes punitive programming over rehabilitate or educational programming. In regards to higher education in prisons the persuasive public echo of Ã¢â¬Å"why should criminals get for free what the rest of us pay forÃ¢â¬ is a falsehood built on the backs of these rulings. I would argue that the education paid for through incarceration entails a greater personal cost of freedoms than a paid tuition could ever represe nt. I doubt anyone would ever go to prison to obtainRead MoreComparing Civilizations And Societies Function On Numerous Principles1183 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslikelihood of recidivism and reducing the crime rate over time. State prison and county jail inmates who receive general education and vocational training are significantly less likely to return to prison after release and are more likely to find employment than peers who do not receive such opportunities. Researchers found that inmates who participate in correctional education programs have 43 percent lower odds of returning to prison than those who do not. The estimate is based on studies that carefully
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Illegal Immigration: Too Large a Burden on America Ã¢â¬Å"Households headed by illegal aliens imposed more than 26. 3 billion dollars in costs on the federal governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦and paid only 16 billion dollars in taxes, creating a net fiscal deficit of almost 10. 4 billion dollars, or two thousand seven hundred dollars per illegal householdÃ¢â¬ (Miller 1). We will write a custom essay sample on Illegal Immigration: Too Large a Burden on America or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some people would argue that immigrants come to America to take jobs that no one else will do, but the illegal immigrants are in fact draining social services and stealing free health care benefits. In addition, immigrants pay little or no taxes to benefit the social services and health care providers that they drain. By doing so, the American tax payers must take on the high price of the American government turning a blind eye to the illegal immigrants rushing in. Yes, illegal immigrants take not so pleasant jobs, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not worth the high price of social services and health care they impose. Although legalized immigration is what this country was founded on in the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, in modern day America many feel it is becoming too large a burden on the American tax payers to stop the influx of illegal immigrants to the United States. The problem of immigration can be solved if we place more restrictions on who is allowed in to our country, and let more able bodied, skilled workers in instead of letting every sob story have priority. Paul Hina, author of Illegal Immigration ( Contemporary Issues Companion), states that due to Ã¢â¬Å"illegal immigration and because U. S. immigration policy slants toward admitting relatives rather than immigrants with needed workplace skills, our immigration system literally imports povertyÃ¢â¬ (Hina 2). So instead of benefiting America with skilled workers, uneducated, poor immigrants are admitted and given full benefits of the social services they donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve. Rachel Alexander, lawyer and coeditor of IntellectualConservatives. com, argues Ã¢â¬Å"illegal immigration is a major problem in the United States because illegal immigrants pay no taxes yet consume welfare resources at the tax payersÃ¢â¬â¢ expenseÃ¢â¬ ¦Border security has not stemmed the tide of illegal immigrants, so the government should focus instead on depriving them of social aid so that they will not be disinclined to sneak in to the countryÃ¢â¬ (Haugen 1). Providing illegal immigrants with social aid is wrong, because not only should they not be in our country, they are supported here by citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ tax dollars. The social services of this country is one of the reasons immigrants rush over here in the first place, so if we place more restrictions on who can receive social aid, they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be so encouraged to hop the border. The massive amounts of immigrants who enter this country illegally make American citizens suffer economically and physically. Jamuna Carroll, author of many young adult books, stresses Ã¢â¬Å"how can we ask working families of California Ã¢â¬â many of whom have taken out sizable loans to finance their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education and many of whom will never be able to afford to send their children to college Ã¢â¬â to subsidize the education of those who should not be in our country at all? Ã¢â¬ (Carroll 2). Citizens in some states are now obligated to pay taxes to help illegal immigrants pay less for the same college education. It is unfair to provide immigrants who are here illegally, with discounts to public colleges and held as a priority over American citizens, who are burdened with taxes that pay for their discounts, in fact, the immigrants should not even be able to attend public colleges since they are breaking the law by being here, and colleges shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t grant acceptance to them. Carroll further suggests Ã¢â¬Å"no one needs a college degree to sustain health and welfare and education is not a human right, as some of the proponents of this goofy attitude about tuition subsidies for illegals suggestÃ¢â¬ (Carroll 2). Education is not an inalienable right. Nowhere in the constitution does it state education is an essential and necessary right the government must provide all who live within the borders. California should not enforce this view on their state residents because illegal immigrants should not benefit from education discounts when California citizens have to pay the hefty bill. Also by placing more restrictions on social aid programs, the tax payers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be so burdened with useless taxes to pay for illegal aliens, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide any benefits to the country. The United States should make educated skilled workers a priority in the immigration policy and place more restrictions on social aid to solve the immigration crisis. Lori Newman, writer for the Greenhaven Press, reminds us, Ã¢â¬Å"every legal immigrant before 1924 was examined for infectious diseases upon arrival and tested for tuberculosis. Anyone infected was shipped back to their country of originÃ¢â¬ ¦todayÃ¢â¬ ¦illegal aliens simply cross our borders medically unexamined, hiding in their bodies any number of diseasesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Newman 3). In 1924, only the healthiest and most educated could be admitted ntrance in to America, the land of opportunities, now the poorest and least educated immigrants with innumerable amounts of diseases flood into our country every day. Those with diseases once rare in our country infect and burden the American health care system. The United States should enforce more restrictions on social and the immigration policy so we can stop these diseases f rom infecting our people. America should stop trying to enforce rights that do not exist on people who should not be in our country and pay more attention to those dying because of the people who bring the diseases in illegally. Many Americans agree the United States needs to stop trying to provide for illegal immigrants within our borders and focus on legal citizens who give back to the country through taxes. Statistics show Ã¢â¬Å"approximately 480,000 family-based immigrants and 140,000 employment based immigrants, as well as around 80,000 refugees and 20,000 immigrants seeking asylumÃ¢â¬ come in every year and stay because they are given health care, welfare and discounts on colleges with no costs to them (Haugen 1). Tax paying Americans are suffering while illegal aliens are given health care and welfare. The government needs to crack down on social services and help their fellow countrymen rather than uneducated and poor immigrants from which American reaps no benefits. Immigrants are what America was founded on, but citizens express that today they come in and take advantage of what America has to offer instead of those who first came to our country, ready to work and provide for their country. America needs to realize they canÃ¢â¬â¢t help everyone who asks, there is simply not enough resources or money, especially in these discouraging economic times. Help those who give America, not those who take advantage. Works Cited Carroll, Jamuna. Subsidizing college Tuition for Illegal Immigrants is Unfair. Ã¢â¬ Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Haugen, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal Immigrants Should be Stopped From Draining Public Services. Ã¢â¬ Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Hina, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal Immigrants Are Abusing the Public Healt h System. Ã¢â¬ Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Miller, Debra. Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal Immigrants Create a Drain on the U. S. Government. Ã¢â¬ Opposing Views Resource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. Newman, Lori. Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal Immigrants Threaten U. S. Health Care. Ã¢â¬ Opposing ViewsResource Center. Gale. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. How to cite Illegal Immigration: Too Large a Burden on America, Essay examples
Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Australian Mental Health Statistics. Answer: Introduction Mental health week is an awareness program which deals with the mental issues and is held on October each year. This week is celebrated every year to merge up with world mental health day on October 10. The mental health week is celebrated for promoting the social and emotional health of the community, create awareness among people to maintain their health status, increasing the managing power of communities, families, individuals and increasing mental health recovery. On an average every year 20% of the population is facing challenges of mental health, 45% in their lifetime. Mental Health Week (9-15 October) is the ideal time to have an open conversation on mental safety. EPIC Mental Health Consultant Georgia Watson trusts Mental Health Week is essential to bring issues to view of emotional well-being issues in the group. It is a chance to acquire comprehension of emotional wellness issues. An extraordinary approach to knowing more about emotional wellness issues is by studying the ABC's Mental As program. Why Mental Health Awareness Week Is Important Despite the fact that a considerable measure of stunning work by devoted associations is being done and emotional wellness is more discussed than any time in recent memory, there is as yet an approach before dispositions change and the dread of disgrace scatters. There are as yet many individuals crosswise over Australia who has been battling without help for quite a long time and it's just through mindfulness, training and correspondence that we can start to separate the obstructions encompassing what ought to be such an essential subject for all of us. It's frequently the primary discussion, the one that begins it all, that is the hardest one. Be that as it may, as Heather took in, it's the way to starting an excursion towards comprehension and acknowledgment, and all the more significant to recover. Australian mental health statistics Around one out of 35 youthful Australians matured 4-17 encounter a depressive issue; i.e. 2.8% of Australians adults have encountered a full of feeling issue. This is equal to 112,000 teenagers. Among the seven teenagers in Australia at least one faces an emotional well-being condition; i.e., 13.9% kids and young people matured 4-17 years encountered a mental issue between 2013-14, which is equal to an expected 560,000 Australian kids and teenagers (www.health.gov.au). One out of fourteen youthful Australians (6.9%) matured 4-17 encountered a tension issue in 2015. This is proportionate to around 278,000 youngsters. The rate of deaths by suicide in youthful Australians is the most astounding it has been in 10 years. In 2015, 391 (12.5 for each 100,000) youthful Australians matured 15-24 passed on by suicide contrasted and 290 (10.4 for every 100,000) youthful Australians in 2005 (ABS Causes of Death, Australia, 2014). Suicide is the greatest enemy of youthful Australians and records for the passings of more youngsters than auto collisions. 324 Australians (10.5 for every 100,000) matured 15-24 biting the dust by suicide in 2012. This analyzes to 198 (6.4 for every 100,000) who passed on in auto collisions (the second most astounding executioner) (ABS Causes of Death, Australia, 2014). Confirmation proposes three out of four grown-up psychological well-being conditions rise by age 24 and half by age 14. Half of all lifetime instances of psychological wellness issue begin by age 14 years and three-fourths by age 24 years. Individuals encountering emotional well-being conditions by and large report a greater number of encounters of being dealt with decidedly than of being maintained a strategic distance from or oppressed, especially from companions, friends and family and relatives (Nicola and Anthony, 2015). Racism has can have truly antagonistic consequences for the health of the youngsters, instruction and social life and these impacts could be conveyed for a long time throughout the life (Priest et al. 2013). Around one out of three youthful Australian grown-ups matured 18-24 years of age, report that they are facing racial separation due to their color of the skin, ethnic inception or religion (Markus, 2016). Around one of every four Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youngsters matured 15 24 years report encountering separation since they were of Aboriginal or potentially Torres Strait Islander origin (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). Around one of every four individuals with type 2 diabetes encounter sadness and one out of six encounter nervousness. Roughly one out of four youngsters matured 13-19 years with Type 1 Diabetes encounter direct to extreme side effects of sadness and nervousness (Speight et al., 2011). Goals of MHAW Mental Health Week concentrates on prosperity, support and group. Everybody's health is essential. You can help take care of your brain by getting enough rest, eating admirably, practicing and diminishing liquor utilization, figuring out how to oversee stress and keep yourself safe and keeping up solid connections (www.health.au.gov). Look for help when you require it by conversing with individuals you trust, looking at administrations online, for example, beyond-blue, reach-out or headspace, visit the GP or call 131465 out of an emergency or Lifeline on 131114. Make associations and be a piece of the group by checking in with mates, talk among friends to share things, discover what's going on in group and join mindshare. Role of government and non-government agencies Government agencies The National psychological well-being technique is a commitment by the government of Australia to enhance the lives of individuals with a dysfunctional behavior. The system was supported in April 1992 by the then Australian Health Ministers' Conference (AHMC) as a structure to control psychological wellness change (www.health.au.gov). The National emotional wellness technique expects to: Promoting of the psychological wellness of the Australian people group Keep improving the mental issue where needed Reducing the effect of mental issue on people, families and the group Assuring the privileges of individuals with emotional sickness. The strategy includes: National mental health policy The National Mental Health Policy 2008 recognizes our Indigenous legacy and the novel commitment of Indigenous individuals' way of life and legacy to our general public. Besides, it perceives Indigenous individuals' unmistakable rights to status and culture, self-assurance and the land. It recognizes that this acknowledgment and personality is principal to the prosperity of Indigenous Australians. It perceives that shared purpose, regard and duty are required to close the crevice on indigenous impediment and to enhance emotional well-being and prosperity (www.health.au.gov). The points of the National Mental Health Policy 2008 are to: Advance the psychological well-being and prosperity of the Australian people group and, where possible, keep the improvement of emotional well-being issues and dysfunctional behavior. Decrease the effect of psychological wellness issues and dysfunctional behavior, including the impacts of shame, on people, families and the group. Advance recuperation from psychological well-being issues and maladjustment Guarantee the privileges of individuals with emotional wellness issues and dysfunctional behavior, and to empower them to take an interest definitively in the public arena. National Mental health plan The Fourth Plan receives a structure of health of the population. This structure perceives that emotional well-being and ailment result from the mind boggling interchange of natural, social, mental, ecological and monetary factors at all levels. The determinants of emotional wellness status incorporate factors, for example, pay, instruction, work and access to group assets. The populace well-being system recognizes the significance of psychological well-being issues over the life expectancy from early stages to seniority, and perceives that a few people might be especially powerless in view of their statistic qualities (e.g. age, social context) or their encounters (e.g. presentation to injury or misuse) (Dimoff et al. 2016). The Fourth Plan visualizes the route in which changes in the psychological wellness part can between relate with approach headings of other government portfolios, with a view to guaranteeing that individuals with emotional wellness issues and dysfunctional behavior can profit by them in the best possible way (Perry et al. 2014). Mental health statement of rights and responsibilities The original mental health statement of rights and duties was discharged in 1991. It gave an all-encompassing structure to direct approach and rehearses and informs the consumers and carers. From that point forward there have been noteworthy advancements in national and jurisdictional emotional well-being spaces (McGorry et al., 2013). Such advancements incorporate the arrival of the National Mental Health Policy in 2008 (focused on by every Australian government), a progression of National Mental Health Plans, with the latest being the Fourth National Mental Health Plan 2009 2014, the National Standards for Mental Health Services 2010 and the National Carer Strategy in 2011. What's more there have been vital improvements through the Council of Australian Governments National Action Plan for Mental Health 2006 2011 (Howe et al., 2014). The procedure has been reaffirmed by the well-being priests various circumstances since 1992. In 1998 the Second psychological health plan was produced, and in 2003 the National emotional health plan 2003-2008 was supported. Most as of late, the 1992 National psychological wellness approach was changed in 2008 and the Fourth national emotional wellness design was discharged in November 2009. The Mental well-being articulation of rights and obligations was overhauled in 2012 (Lemon et al., 2016). Non-government organization Funding is arranged for emotional wellness emergency treatment preparing for cutting edge group specialises in the money related and legitimate divisions, relationship advisors, and social insurance laborers. These areas collaborate with individuals who might be in budgetary, legitimate or relationship emergency where the danger of suicide is expanded. The preparation has a particular concentrate on suicide anticipation to enable better to distinguish and react to the requirements of individuals in danger of suicide or who have endeavored suicide (Happell et al., 2015). The division connected with the accompanying three driving emotional well-being medical aid preparing suppliers for this measure until 2014: Mental Health First Aid International Wesley Life Force The Salvation Army (NSW) Four parts were recognized to get preparing: the human services, budgetary, lawful and relationship advising divisions. In counsel with the suppliers, preparing for the segments was part as takes after: Mental Health First Aid International monetary advising and human services divisions (specifically, solution and nursing, with an accentuation on understudies preparing in those callings) Salvation Army lawful part Wesley Life Force relationship guiding segments and human services laborers (specifically, general specialists, including their training staff and Aged Care Nurses). These associations give preparing in roughly 40 districts crosswise over Australia in both local and metropolitan zones. The role and impact of the media in mental health promotion The media's power to affect open discernment and how much individuals are presented to media portrayals makes the broad communications a standout amongst the most critical impacts in created social orders. The broad communications is certainly the Canadian Open's critical wellsprings of data (Livingston et al., 2014). With regards to emotional instability, the media has a tendency to twist the reality. Regardless, the media shapes our thoughts and courses in which we comprehend everyone around us. For that distress from dysfunctional behaviors, the ramifications of the regularly negative and incorrect depictions of mental health issues are huge. Mistaken data in the media about emotional sickness, regardless of the possibility that the depiction of an individual is certain, brings about false impressions that can have extensive and genuine results (Niederkrotenthaler et al., 2014). For instance, incorrect delineations of schizophrenia can prompt false convictions, perplexity, struggl e, and a deferral in getting treatment. Extensive research has reported that the publics most important and convenient source of mental health is the media. Coverdale et al., (2013) contends that TV is the most effective medium for confining public consciousness. Conclusion This overview gives experiences into the present condition of recuperation situated psychological wellness care and nations' distinctive methodologies for executing recuperation arranged administrations and measures. While recuperation has picked up acknowledgment as an essential space in social insurance in numerous nations, the execution and assessment of recuperation ideas all through care conveyance frameworks in a continuous and reliable way is as yet a work in advance and will require supported assets and responsibility by all partners associated with this procedure. 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